immune assessment&diagnosis

1. assessment


2. diagnostic test

1) ANA (Anti Nuclear Antibody) titer determination

  • A blood test used for the differential diagnosis of rheumatic diseases and for the detection of anti-nucleoprotein factors and patterns associated with certain autoimmune disease.
  • The test is positive at a titer of 1:20 or 1:40, depending on the laboratory.

2) anti-dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) antibody test

  • The anti-dsDNA antibody test is a blood test done specifically to identify or differentiate DNA antibodies found in SLE.
  • The test is positive at higher than 200 units.

3) testing related to AIDS

  • ELISA:  A test determines the response of HIV antibodies. A single reactive ELISA test by itself cannot be used to diagnose HIV and should be repeated in duplicate with the same blood sample. If the result is repeatedly reactive, follow-up tests using Western blot or IFA should be performed. A positive ELISA result that fails to be confirmed by Western blot or IFA should not be considered negative, and repeat testing should take place in 3 to 6 months.
  • Western blot: A test determines the presence of HIV antibodies. A positive Western blot or IFA is considered confirmatory for HIV.
  • IFA (Immunofluorescence Assay)
  • CD4+ T-cell counts: Monitors the progression of HIV. Immune system problems occur when the CD4+ T-cell count is between 200 and 499 cells/L.
  •  CD4 to CD8 ratio: Monitors the progression of HIV. The normal ratio is approximately 2 : 1.
  • viral load testing: It measures the presence of HIV viral genetic material (RNA) or another viral protein in the client’s blood.
  • viral culture: It involves placing the infected client’s blood cells in a culture medium and measuring the amount of reverse transcriptase activity over a specified period of time.
  •  p24 antigen assay: A test determines HIV antigen-specific. It quantifies the amount of HIV viral core protein in the client’s serum.
  • oral testing for HIV: Uses a device that is placed against the gum and cheek for 2 minutes. The pad is placed in a solution and a specified observable change is noted if the test result is positive.

4) skin testing

  • The administration of an allergen to the surface of the skin or into the dermis. Administered by patch, scratch, or intradermal techniques.
  • Obtain informed consent. Discontinue systemic corticosteroids or antihistamine therapy 5 days before the test as prescribed.
  • Record the site, date, and time of the test. Record the date and time for follow-up site reading. Have the client remain in the waiting room or office for at least 30 minutes after the injection to monitor for adverse effects. Inspect the site for erythema, papules, vesicles, edema, and wheal. Measure flare along with the wheal and document the size and other findings. Provide the client with a list of potential allergens, if identified. Have resuscitation equipment available.