gastrointestinal medication

1. antacids

  • Antacids react with gastric acid to produce neutral salts or salts of low acidity. It inactivates pepsin and enhances mucosal protection but does not coat the ulcer crater. ex) Al compounds, Mg compounds, Ca compounds, sodium bicarbonate
  • side/adverse effect: Al은 constipation, Mg는 diarrhea, Ca는 constipation
  • These medications should be taken on a regular schedule. Some are prescribed to be taken 1 and 3 hours after each meal and at bedtime. Antacid tablets should be chewed thoroughly and followed with a glass of water or milk. Liquid preparations should be shaken before dispensing. To prevent interactions with other medications and interference with the action of other medications, allow 1 hour between antacid administration and the administration of other medications. ex) misoprostol (Cytotec)
  • It suppresses the secretion of gastric acid and maintains submucosal blood flow by promoting vasodilation.
  • side/adverse effect: diarrhea, abdominal pain
  • Administered with meals. ex) ★ sucralfate (Carafate)
  • It creates a protective barrier against acid and pepsin.
  • side/adverse effect : constipation
  • Administered orally. Should be taken on an empty stomach.


2. ★ H2 receptor antagonist

  • Suppress secretion of gastric acid ex) cimetidine (Tagamet)
  • side/adverse effect: nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, agitation, confusion,  hypotension, dysrhythmias
  • It can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or intravenously. If taken with meals, absorption will be slowed. Antacid can decrease the absorption of oral cimetidine. ex) ranitidine (Zantac)
  • side/adverse effect : uncommon
  • It can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or intravenously. It is not affected by food. 1∼2 times/day.


3. ★ PPI (Proton Pump Inhibitors)

  • Suppress secretion of gastric acid ex) omeprazole (Prilosec)
  • side/adverse effect: nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hepatotoxicity, headache, hypoglycemia
  • caution with warfarin ↓, clopidogrel ↑, antifungal ↓