communicable disease&treatment

1. diphtheria

• agent: corynebacterium diphtheria

• incubation period: 2 to 5 days

• communicable period: usually 2 to 4 weeks

• transmission: direct contact with infected persons, carrier, or contaminated articles

• low fever

• sore throat,
nasal discharge, lymphadenitis

• Ensure strict isolation.(contact, droplet precaution)

• Administer antibiotics.

2. pertussis (whooping cough)

• agent: Bordetella pertussis

• incubation period: 5 to 21 days

• communicable period: when discharge from respiratory secretions occurs

• transmission: direct contact or droplet spread from an infected person

• cough ‘whooping sound’ over one month

• nausea

• Ensure strict isolation.(contact, droplet precaution)

• Administer antimicrobial therapy.

3. influenza

• transmission: contact with an infected person or by touching something such as a toy or tissue that the infected person has touched • usually, last a week • Keep the child home from school or away from others until the child has been fever-free for at least 24 hours.

4.  measles (rubeola)

• agent: paramyxovirus

• incubation period: 10 to 20 days

• communicable period: from 4 days before to 5 days after the rash appears

• transmission: airborne particles or direct contact with the infectious droplet, transplacental

• fever

• rash appears as a red, erythematous maculopapular eruption, starting on the face and spreading downward to the feet

• Koplik’s spot

• Ensure strict isolation.(contact, airborne precaution)

• Administer antipyretics for fever.

• Never aspirin

5. mumps

• agent: paramyxovirus

• incubation period: 14 to 21 days

• communicable period: immediately before and after parotid gland swelling begins

• transmission: droplet spread from an infected person or direct contact

• fever

• jaw or ear pain aggravated by chewing, followed by parotid glandular swelling

• Ensure strict isolation
(contact, droplet precaution)• Avoid foods that require chewing.

6. rubella (german measles)

• agent: rubella virus

• incubation period: 14 to 21 days

• communicable period: from 7 days before to about 5 days after the rash appears

• transmission: airborne or direct contact with the infectious droplet, transplacental

• fever

• pinkish-red maculopapular rash that begins on the face and spreads to the entire body

• Ensure strict isolation.(contact, droplet precaution)

• Isolate the infected child from pregnant women.

  • never assigned to pregnant nurses :
    toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella, human parvovirus B19, RSV의 ribavirin.

7. varicella (chickenpox)

• agent : varicella-zoster virus

• incubation period: 13 to 17 days

• communicable period: from 2 days before the onset of the rash to 6 days after the first crop of vesicles

• transmission: airborne or direct contact with the infectious droplet

• fever

• macular rash that first appears on the trunk and scalp and moves to the face and extremities

• Ensure strict isolation.(contact, airborne precaution)

• Isolate high-risk children, such as children who have immunosuppressive disorders, form a child with a communicable disease.

• Administer antiviral agent.

8. roseola (exanthema subitum)

• agent: human herpesvirus type 6

• incubation periods: 5 to 15 days

• communicable: unknown, but thought to extend from the febrile stage to the time the rash first appears

• transmission: unknown

• fever

• rash: rose-pink macules that blanch with pressure, appears several hours to 2 days after the fever subsides, and lasts 1 to 2 days

• supportive intervention

9. erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)

• agent: human parvovirus B19

• incubation periods: 4 to 14 days

• communicable periods: uncertain

• transmission: unknown, possibly respiratory secretions and blood

• fever

• erythema of the face develops: slapped-cheek appearance, disappears by 1 to 4 days.

• droplet precaution

• The child is not usually hospitalized.

• Isolate the infected child from pregnant women.

10. poliomyelitis

• agent: enteroviruses

• incubation periods: 7 to 14 days

• communicable periods: unknown

• transmission: direct contact with infected person, fecal-oral and oropharyngeal routes

• Ensure strict isolation.(contact, enteric precaution)

11. infectious mononucleosis (kissing disease)

• agent: Epstein-Barr virus

• incubation periods: 4 to 6 weeks

• communicable periods: unknown

• transmission: oral secretions through direct intimate contact

• fever

• lymphadenopathy

12. scarlet fever

• agent: group A B hemolytic streptococci

• incubation periods: 1 to 7 days

• communicable period: about 10 days during the incubation period and clinical illness

• transmission: droplet articles or direct contact with an infected person

• complication: glomerulonephritis

• fever

• A red and fine sandpaper-like rash develops in the axilla, groin, and neck that spreads to cover the entire body except for the face.

• red strawberry tongue

• Ensure strict isolation until 24 hours after the initiation of antibiotics.(contact, droplet precaution)

13. rocky mountain spotted fever

• agent: richettsia rickettsii

• incubation periods: 2 to 14 days

• transmission: the bite of an infected tick

• fever

• maculopapular or petechial rash primarily on the extremities (ankles and wrists)

• standard precaution

• Administer antibiotics.

• measures to protect children from tick bites: Wearing long-sleeved shirts, long pants tucked into long socks, and a hat when walking in tick-infected areas. Wearing light-colored clothing to make ticks more visible if they get onto the child. Applying insect repellents containing diethyltoluamide (DEET) and permethrin before possible exposure to areas where ticks are found. Applying tick repellent to dogs. Following paths rather than walking in tall grass and shrub areas because these are the places where most ticks are found. Keeping yards at home trimmed and free of accumulating leaves and other brush. Saving the tick for later identification if it is removed from the child’s body.

14. MRSA

• agent: staphylococcus aureus

• at risk: hospitalized, athletes, prisoners, daycare attendees, military recruits, persons who abuse IV drugs, persons living in crowded settings, persons with poor hygiene practices, persons who use contaminated items, persons who get tattoos, and persons with a compromised immune system

• transmission; spread through person-to-person contact, through contact with contaminated items, or through infection of a preexisting cut or wound that is not protected by a dressing

• Assess skin lesions.

• Prepare to drain an infected skin site and culture the wound and wound drainage.

• Prepare to obtain blood cultures, sputum cultures, and urine cultures.

• Prepare to administer antibiotics as prescribed.

• Prevention: hand-washing and practicing good personal hygiene, avoiding sharing of personal items, regular cleaning of shared equipment such as athletic equipment, whirlpools, or saunas

• cleaning a cut or wound thoroughly

15. lice

• capitus (head), corporis (body) : 위생과 밀접

pediculosis pubis (perineal) : STD와 밀접

• Lice can survive for 48 hours away from the host. Nits shed in the environment can hatch in 7 to 10 days.

• contact precaution

• discard → hot water → dry cleaning → sealing for 2 wk

• Lice live and reproduce only on humans and are transmitted by direct and indirect contact.

16. scabies

• a parasitic skin disorder, transmitted by close personal contact with an infected person • contact precaution

17. impetigo

• a contagious bacterial infection of the skin caused by B-hemolytic streptococci or staphylococci, or both. Impetigo can occur or poor hygiene. It can be a primary infection or occur secondarily at a site that has been injured. • The most common sites of infection are on the face and around the mouth. • contact precaution